Credit: Brian Stauffer

2022 Afseth, C*., Anderson, S., Shi, A., Bell, A.M., Hellmann, J. Vertical transmission of horizontally-acquired information in sticklebacks: Implications for transgenerational plasticity. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B.

2022 Bensky, M., Bell, A.M. A boldness-flexibility syndrome facilitates invasion success in sticklebacks. American Naturalist

2022 Maciejewski, M., Bell, A.M. Insights into parental care from studies of non-mammalian vertebrates. Affective Science

2021              Fischer, E., Hauber, M., Bell, A.M. Back to the basics? Transcriptomics offers insights into the role of space, time, and the environment for gene expression and behaviour. Biology Letters 17: 20210293


2021              Hellmann, J., Carlson, E.*, Bell, A.M. The interplay between sperm-mediated and care-mediated paternal effects in threespine sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 179:267-277


2021              James, N., Bell, A.M. Minimally invasive brain injections for viral-mediated transgenesis: New tools for behavioral genetics in sticklebacks. PLoSOne 16(5): e0251653


2021               Stamps, J.A., Bell, A.M. Combining information from parental and personal experiences: Simple processes generate diverse outcomes. PLoSOne 16(7): e0250540


2021               Chen, E.*, Zielinski, C.*, Deno, J.*, Singh, R.*, Bell, A.M., Hellmann, J. The specificity of sperm-mediated paternal effects in threespined sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 75: 68


2021             Laskowski, K.L., Bell, A.M., Stamps, J.A.  Evolution and development of individual behavioral variation. Oxford Bibliographies in Evolutionary Biology. Ed. Douglas Futuyma. New York: Oxford University Press.


2020             Hellmann, J.A., Bukhari, S.A., Bell, A.M. Sex specific parental effects I: Maternal and paternal effects on sons and daughters. Journal of Animal Ecology 89: 2788-2799


2020             Hellmann, J.A., Carlson, E., Bell, A.M. Sex-specific transgenerational plasticity II: Grandpaternal effects are lineage- and sex-specific in threespined sticklebacks. Journal of Animal Ecology 89: 2800-2812 


2020             Bell, A.M. Bensky, M. Animal Personality. In: Cambridge Handbook of Personality, P. Orr (editor)


2020             Stamps, J.A.  and Bell, A.M. The information provided by the absence of cues: Insights from Bayesian models of within and transgenerational plasticity. Oecologia 194: 585-596


2020             Bensky, M.B. and Bell, A.M.  Predictors of individual differences in reversal learning performance in sticklebacks. Animal Cognition 23:925-938


2020             Monestier, C. and Bell, A.M. Personality traits change after an opportunity to mate. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 287: 20192936


2020             McGhee, K., Paitz, R., Foster, S.A., Baker, J., Bell, A.M. Effects of predation risk on egg steroid profile across multiple populations of sticklebacks. Scientific Reports 10: 5239


2019             Donelan, S.C., Hellmann, J.K., Bell, A.M., Luttbug, B., Orrock J.L., Sheriff, M.J., Sih, A. Transgenerational plasticity in human-altered environments. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 35: 115-124


2019             Bukhari, S.A., Bensky, M., James, N., Stein, L.R., Bell, A.M. Neurogenomic insights into paternal care and its relation to territorial aggression. Nature Communications 10: 4437


2019             Bell, A.M. and Hellmann, J.A. An integrative framework for understanding the mechanisms and multigenerational consequences of transgenerational plasticity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 50: 97-118


2019             Bell, A.M. Individual differences and the challenge hypothesis. Hormones and Behavior; special issue to celebrate the 30th anniversary of the Challenge Hypothesis (invited)


2019             Pearish, A., Bensky, M., Bell, A.M. Social environment determines the effect of boldness and activity on survival. Ethology 125: 855-862


2019             Stein, L.R. and Bell, A.M. The role of variation and plasticity in parental care during the adaptive radiation of threespine sticklebacks. Evolution 73: 1037-1044


2018             Dellinger, M., Zhang, W., Bell, A.M., Hellmann, J. Do male sticklebacks use visual and/or olfactory cues to assess a potential mate’s history with predation risk? Animal Behaviour 145: 151-159.


2018             Saul, M.C., Blatti, C., Yang, W., Bukhari, S.A., Shpigler, H., Troy H., Sloofman, L., Chandrasekaran, S., Bell, A.M., Stubbs, L., Robinson, G.E., Zhao, S.D., Sinha, S. Cross-species systems analysis of evolutionary toolkits of neurogenomic response to social challenge. Genes, Brain and Behavior 18: e12502


2018             Stein, L.R., Bukhari, S.A., Bell, A.M.  Personal and transgenerational cues are nonadditive at the phenotypic and molecular level. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2: 1306-0311


2018             Saltz, J.B., Flint, J., Gomulkiewicz, R., Hughes, K., Keagy, J., Bell, A.M.. Why does the magnitude of genotype by environment vary? Ecology and Evolution 2018:1-12 (part of a series organized by A.M. Bell)


2018             Bengston, S., Dahan, R., Donaldson, Z., Phelps, S.P., van Oers, K., Sih, A., Bell, A.M. Genomic tools for behavioral ecologists to understand repeatable individual differences in behavior. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2:944-955 (part of a series organized by A.M. Bell)


2018             Bell, A.M., Keagy, J., Trapp, R. Parenting behaviour is highly heritable in male sticklebacks.Royal Society Open Science 5: 171029.


2018             Bensky, M., Bell, A.M. Intraspecific variation in cue-specific learning in sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 137:161-168


2018             Kent, M., Bell, A.M. Changes in behavior and brain immediate early gene expression in male threespined sticklebacks as they become fathers. Hormones and Behavior 97:102-111


2017             Bell, A.M., Saltz, J. Profitable interplay between the study of human and nonhuman personality (Commentary on Baumert et al.). European Journal of Personality 31: 529-595


2017             Bell, A.M., Stein, L.R. Transgenerational and developmental plasticity at the molecular level: Lessons from DaphniaMolecular Ecology 26: 4859-4861.


2017             Sheriff, M., Bell, A.M., Boonstra, R., Dantzer, B., Lavergne, S., McGhee, K., MacLeod, K., Winandy, L., Zimmer, C., Love, O.  Integrating ecological and evolutionary context into the study of maternal stress. Integrative and Comparative Biology (invited) 2017: 1-13


2017             Bukhari, S.A., Saul, M.C., Seward, C.H., Zhang, H., Bensky, M., James, N., Zhao, S.D., Chandrasekaran, S., Stubbs, L., Bell, A.M.  Temporal dynamics of neurogenomic plasticity in response to social interactions. PLoS Genetics 13e1006840


2017             Bell, A.M. Commentary on Beckman and Jordan: There is no special sauce. Behavioral Ecology 28: 626-627.


2017             Trapp, R. and Bell, A.M.  The effect of familiarity with demonstrators on social learning in sticklebacks. Ethology 123: 213-220.


2017             Bensky, M., Paitz, R., Bell, A.M. Testing the predictions of coping styles theory in threespined sticklebacks. Behavioral Processes 136: 1-10


2016             Sanogo.O., Bell, A.M. Molecular mechanisms and the conflict between courtship and aggression in sticklebacks. Molecular Ecology 25: 4368-4376


2016             Pearish, S.P., Hostert, L., Bell, A.M.  A standardized method for quantifying consistent individual differences in schooling behavior. Journal of Fish Biology 90: 443-450.


2016             Bell, A.M., Bukhari, S.A., Sanogo, Y.O. Natural variation in brain gene expression profiles of aggressive and nonaggressive individuals sticklebacks. Behaviour (invited) 153:1723-1743


2016             James, N., Liu, X., Bell, A.M. A fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol for stickleback tissue. Evolutionary Ecology Research 17: 603-617


2016             Paitz, R., Bukhari, S.A., Bell, A.M. Stickleback embryos use ABC transporters as a buffer against exposure to maternally derived cortisol. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 283(1826):20152838

                        Featured in: L.E. Ogden. 2016. Fear Factor. Bioscience 66: 625-631.


2016             Stein, L.R., Bell, A.M. Do reproduction and parenting influence personality traits? Insights from threespine stickleback. Animal Behaviour 112:247-254.


2016             Bell, A.M., McGhee, K.E., Stein, L.R. Parental stressors and offspring outcomes in threespined sticklebacks. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 7:28-32.


2015             Bell, A.M. and Dochtermann, N. Integrating molecular mechanisms into quantitative genetics in order to understand consistent individual differences in behavior. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 6: 111-114.


2015             McGhee, K.E., Leasure, S., Feng, S., Bell, A.M. A female’s past experience with predators affects male courtship and the care her offspring will receive from their father. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 282: 1840-1845.


2015             Feng, S., McGhee, K.M., Bell, A.M. Effects of maternal predator exposure on the ability of stickleback offspring to generalize a learned colour-reward association. Animal Behaviour107:61-69

                        Featured in: ‘In focus’ Editor’s section


2015             Paitz, R.T., Mommer, B.C., Suhr, E., Bell, A.M. Changes in the concentrations of four maternal steroids during embryonic development in the threespined stickleback. Journal of Experimental Zoology, A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 323: 422-429


2015             Stein, L., Bell, A.M. Consistent individual differences in paternal behavior: A field study of threespined sticklebacks. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 69: 227-236


2015             Laskowski, K.L., Pearish, S., Bensky, M., Bell, A.M. Predictors of individual variation in movement in a natural population of threespine stickleback. Advances in Ecological Research 52: 65-90 (invited).


2014             Rittschof, C.C., Bukhari, S.A., Sloofman, L.G., Troy, L.M., Caetano-Anollés, D., Cash-Ahmed, A., Kent, M., Lu, X., Sanogo, Y.O., Weisner, P.A., Zhang, H., Bell, A.M., Ma, J., Sinha, S., Robinson, G.E., and Stubbs, L. Neuromolecular responses to social challenge:Common mechanisms across mouse, stickleback fish, and honey bee. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 17929-17934.


2014             McGhee, K.E. and Bell, A.M. Paternal care in a fish: Epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B.281: 20141146


2014             Pintor, L., McGhee, K.E., Bell, A.M. Individual variation in foraging behavior reveals a tradeoff between flexibility and performance in a top predator. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68:1711-1722. 


2014             Stein, L.S., and Bell, A.M. Paternal programming in sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 95: 165-171.


2014             Mommer, B.C. & Bell, A.M. Maternal experience with predation risk influences genome-wide embryonic gene expression in threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). PLoSOne9:E98564.


2014              Laskowski, K.L., Bell, A.M. Strong personalities, not social niches, drive individual differences in social foraging behaviour. Animal Behaviour 90: 287-295.


2014             Bell, AM. (invited) Integrated studies of stickleback behavior. Pages 1-32 in: ‘Animal Behavior: Case Studies’, edited by K. Yasukawa, Praeger.


2013             Bell, A.M. (invited) Dispatch: Skipping School. Current Biology 23: 873-875. 


2013             McGhee, K.M., Pintor, L., Bell, A.M. Reciprocal behavioral plasticity and behavioral types during predator-prey interactions. American Naturalist 182: 704-717. 


2013             Mommer, B., Bell, A.M. A test of maternal programming of offspring stress response to predation risk in threespine sticklebacksPhysiology and Behavior 122: 222-227


2013             Pearish, S.P., Bell, A.M. Behavioral type-environment correlations in the field: A study of three-spined stickleback. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 67:765-774. 


2013             Laskowski, K.L. & Bell, A.M. Competition avoidance drives individual differences in response to a changing food resource in sticklebacks. Ecology Letters 16:746-53.


2013             Bell, A.M., Foster, S.A., Wund, M. (invited). Personality in sticklebacks. In: ‘Animal Personalities: Behavior, Physiology, and Evolution’, edited by C. Carere and D. Maestripieri, University of Chicago Press.


2013             Grobis, M.M., Pearish, S.P., Bell, A.M. Avoidance or escape? Discriminating between two hypotheses for the function of schooling in threespine sticklebacks. Animal Behaviour 85: 187-194.


2013             Bell, A.M. Randomized or fixed order for studies of behavioral syndromes? Behavioral Ecology 24:16-21.


2012             Bell, A.M.  and Peeke, H.V.S. Individual variation in habituation: Behavior over time toward different stimuli in threespine sticklebacks. Behaviour 149: 1339-1365. 


2012             Sanogo, Y.O., Band, M.A., Blatti, C., Sinha, S. & Bell, A.M. Transcriptional regulation of brain gene expression in response to a territorial intrusion. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 279: 4929-4938. 


2012             Roche, D., McGhee, K., Bell, A.M. Maternal predator-exposure has lifelong consequences for offspring learning in sticklebacks. Biology Letters 6:932-935Featured in Nature 490(8)


2012             Dall, S.R.X., Bell, A.M., Bolnick, D., Raetniks, F. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences. Ecology Letters 15: 189-1198. 


2012             McGhee, K.E., Pintor, L., Suhr, E., Bell, A.M. Maternal exposure to predation risk decreases offspring antipredator behaviour and survival in threespined stickleback. Functional Ecology 26: 932-940. 


2012             Stein, L., Bell, A.M. Consistent individual differences in paternal behavior in threespined sticklebacks. Current Zoology 58: 45-52. 


2012             Bell, A.M. (invited) News and Views: Personality in the wild. Nature 491: 341-342. 


2011             Sanogo, Y.O., Hankison, S., Band, M., Obregon, A., Bell, A.M. Brain transcriptomic response of threespine stickleback to cues of a predator. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 77: 270-285. 


2011             Bell, A.M., Robinson, G.E. Behavior and the dynamic genome. Science. 332:1161-1162. 


2011             Giesing, E., Suski, C., Warner, R.C., Bell, A.M. Female sticklebacks transfer information via eggs: Effects of maternal experience with predators on offspring. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 278: 1753-1759. 


2011             Bell, A.M., Dingemanse, N.J., Hankison, S., Langenhof, M., Rollins, K. Early exposure to non-lethal predation risk by size-selective predators increases somatic growth and decreases size at adulthood in threespined sticklebacks. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24: 943-953. 


2010             Bell, A.M., Aubin-Horth, N. What whole genome expression data can tell us about the ecology and evolution of personality in animals. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B. 365:4001-4012. 


2010             Sih, A., Bell, A.M., Johnson, J.C. Behavioral syndromes. In ‘Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology’, edited by D. Westneat and C. Fox, University of Chicago Press.


2010             Bell, A.M., Henderson, L., Pottinger, T.P, Huntingford, F.A. Behavioral and respiratory responses to stressors in multiple populations of three-spined sticklebacks that differ in predation pressure. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. 180:211-220. 


2010             Bell, A.M. Approaching the genomics of risk-taking behavior. Advances in Genetics68: 83-99. 


2009             Bell, A.M., Hankison, S.J., Laskowski, K. The repeatability of behaviour: a meta-analysis. Animal Behaviour 77:771-783. 


2008             Sih, A., Bell, A.M. Insights from behavioral syndromes for behavioral ecology. Advances in the Study of Behavior 38: 227-281.


2008             Bell, A.M. Genetic basis of fish behavior. In ‘Fish Behaviour’, edited by C. Magnhagen, V.A. Braithwaite, E. Forsgren & B.G. Kapoor, Science Publishers, Inc.


2007             Bell, A.M. and Sih, A. Exposure to predation generates personality in threespined sticklebacks. Ecology Letters 10:828-834. 


2007             Alvarez, D. and Bell, A.M. Stream sticklebacks are more bold than pond sticklebacks. Behavioural Processes 76:215-217. 


2007             Sih, A. and Bell, A.M. Insights from behavioral syndromes for the evolutionary genetics of human personality. European Journal of Human Personality 21:626-628.


2007             Bell, A.M. News and Views: Personality in animals. Nature 447:539-540. 


2007             Bell, A.M. Future directions in behavioural syndromes research. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B. 274:755-761. 


2007             Bell, A.M., Winberg, S., Backstrom, T., Pottinger, T. G., Huntingford, F.A. Variable neuroendocrine responses to ecologically-relevant challenges in sticklebacks.  Physiology and Behavior 91:15-25. 


2006             Malhi, R.S., Rhett, G. and Bell, A.M. Mitochondrial DNA evidence of an early Holocene population expansion of threespine sticklebacks from Scotland. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:148-154. 


2005             Bell, A.M. Behavioral differences between individuals and two populations of stickleback. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18:464-473.


2004             Bell, A.M. and Stamps, J.A. Development of behavioural differences between individuals and populations of sticklebacksAnimal Behaviour 68:1339-1348.


2004             Clotfelter, E., Bell, A.M. and LeVering, K. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and their effects on animal behaviour. Animal Behaviour 68:465-476.


2004             Sih, A., Bell, A.M., Johnson, J.C., Ziemba, R.E. Behavioral syndromes: an integrative review. Quarterly Review of Biology 79:241-277. 


2004             Sih, A., Bell, A., Johnson, J.C. Behavioral syndromes: an ecological and evolutionary overview. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:372-378. Note no middle initial.


2004             Sih, A., Bell, A.M., Kerby, J. Two stressors are far deadlier than one. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:274-276. 


2004             Bell, A.M. An endocrine disrupter increases growth and risky behavior in threespined stickleback. Hormones and Behavior 45:108-114. 


2004             Sih, A., Kerby, J., Bell, A.M., Relyea, R.A. 2004. Response to Schmidt. Pesticides, mortality and population growth rate. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:460-461.


2004            Sih, A., Bell, A.M., Johnson, J.C. 2004. Reply to Neff and Sherman. Behavioral syndromes versus Darwinian algorithms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:622-623.


2003            Bell, A.M., Davis, J.M., DeBose, J.L., Long, S.J., Mabry, K.E., Stankowich, T., Watters, J.V., Johnson, J.C.  2003. Greatest hits in behavioral ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution17:296 (book review).


2001             Bell, A.M. Effects of an endocrine disrupter on courtship and aggressive behaviour of male threespined stickleback. Animal Behaviour 62:775-780.


2001             Bell, A.M., Davis, J.M., Greene, C.M., Lema, S.C., Watters, J.V., Yang, L.H. 2001 ‘Evolutionary questions in a ecologically relevant context’. Evolution 55: 1715-1716 (book review).


1998             Houck, L.D., Bell, A.M., Feldhoff, R. Courtship pheromones increase female receptivity in Plethodon jordaniCopeia 1998:214-219. 


Latest Posts
Two new papers from the lab on the molecular basis and evolution of decision makingDecember 1, 2023How do animals balance between competing demands, and how do those mechanism evolve?   If you spend much time watching animals in natural populations you’re bound to notice that animals are rarely doing just one thing at a time. How do they balance between competing demands?  In a new paper in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Alison presents a framework for using neurogenomic tools to understand the mechanisms by which animals balance between competing demands, and how those mechanisms evolve. And in this new paper in Biology Letters Tina Barbasch shows that male sticklebacks mount a distinct neurogenomic response to a trade-off between social challenge and opportunity, thereby identifying some of the genes specifically important for decision making, and paving the way into further understanding of the evolution of mechanisms for decision making. See here for a nice profile of Tina’s study written by Kevin Neumann! [...] Read more...
Genome Day at the Champaign Public Library was a great community outreach eventNovember 8, 2023Usan Dan and Tina Barbasch play a food web Jenga with the kids And there were ants! [...] Read more...
Interview with Cassidy Constant, PRECS REU studentNovember 1, 2023Cassidy completed a project investigating the parental behavior of blackspotted stickleback in summer 2023 – check out the interview about her experience on YouTube! [...] Read more...
Summer 2023 field season in AlaskaJune 20, 2023Field crews unite! The Alaska Behaviour Axis convened with teams led by Matt Wund, Mike Bell and Ripan Malhi in Kenai, Alaska. There was cake. [...] Read more...
Damaris Miranda and Tara Pavithran present at the Undergraduate Research Symposium!April 16, 2023Damaris was supervised by Kevin Neumann and Tara by Meghan Maciejewski. They did a great job! [...] Read more...
A very successful retreat for the Alaska project. We are thrilled to be a part of the “greatest eco-evo experiment ever” and had a great time!April 16, 2023The behaviour axis, including (from left) Alexis Heckley, Chad Brock, Rionach McCarthy, Alison Bell, Tina Barbasch, Kiyoko Gotanda, Kevin Neumann, Allison Roth, Eric Neumann and Brendan Byrd Kevin Neumann presenting findings from summer 2022 Tina Barbasch presenting at the retreat Eric Arredondo shows results from summer 2022 and plans for 2023 [...] Read more...